Stock Option Counsel, P.C. - Legal Services for Individuals. Attorney Mary Russell counsels individuals on equity grants, executive compensation design, employment agreements and acquisition terms. She also counsels founders on their personal interests at incorporation, financings and exit events. Please see this FAQ about her services or contact her at (650) 326-3412 or by email.
It’s helpful for startup employees to understand early expiration of stock options and the possible solution of a full 10 year term to exercise. But the full 10 year term stock option is not the right design for every startup equity grant! In some cases it would be the wrong ask, and pushing for it can can lead to embarrassment or a disadvantageous design.
Examples of Good Startup Equity Design by Company Stage
In advising on the right structure for clients of Stock Option Counsel - Legal Services for Individuals, I work with individuals to balance their priorities for investment timing, tax timing, tax rates and value structure. These are some examples of how the trade-offs are made at each stage.
1. Earliest Stage - Restricted Stock Purchase
While a startup is in its early stages and its Fair Market Value (FMV) is quite low, consider purchase of Restricted Stock for founders and early employees. This is the model used for Founders’ Stock at startups, and it is also ideal for executives and employees who are willing to pay the FMV of the common stock up-front for their shares. With the use of an 83(b) election with the IRS, Restricted Stock purchase provides for tax deferral until sale of stock, favorable capital gains tax rates at sale of stock, and fewer tax penalties than stock options in the event the IRS determines the FMV was underpriced for the shares.
2. Early to Mid-Stage - Early Exercise of Stock Options
For those who are willing to take early investment risks for tax deferral and lower tax rates, consider early exercise of stock options. This is an obvious choice for early-stage startup hires who can afford the stock purchase price at hire. For example, at a very early stage startup an employee’s total exercise price might be less than $1,000. Early exercise may also be a good choice for some individuals at mid-stage startups with somewhat higher exercise prices or even later stage startups with high growth potential, as an early investment may be worth it for future tax savings and/or tax deferral.
Early exercise stock options can be exercised before vesting. If they are exercised before the FMV rises above the exercise price, tax payments are deferred until sale of stock by use of a Section 83(b) election at the time of purchase.
However, the investment risk is real, as the purchase price is delivered up-front and shares are held as an investment. If the shares were to become worthless, the investment amount would be lost for both vested and unvested shares.
Early exercise stock options are preferable to restricted stock if the employee is not sure about making the investment up-front. Unlike the purchase of restricted stock, the choice to exercise stock options (even with early exercise rights) can be deferred for some time. However, if the exercise or early exercise is made after the FMV has gone up, the exercise will lead to taxable income.
The early exercise structure can be combined with an extended exercise period (see below under #3 or more here on the blog), so that the employee has the choice between early exercising to minimize tax rates or deferring exercise until any time within the full 10 year term.
Note that the right to early exercise can be a disadvantage for stock option grants with an exercise price greater than $100,000 if they are not early exercised. Any amounts over $100,000 would be ineligible for ISO status due to the ISO rules’ $100,000 limitation.
3. Early to Mid-Stage - Stock Options with Full 10-Year Exercise Period
While there is still potential for high growth in value, stock options are an advantage for employees. However, a high exercise price or a high tax bill at exercise can make it impossible for employees to take advantage of the value of stock options. This is because stock options have traditionally been granted with a disadvantageous early expiration term requiring exercise within three months of an optionee’s termination date. Therefore, stock options are most advantageous where they are granted with a full 10 year term to exercise regardless of the date of termination. This allows the optionee to defer the investment decision and the associated tax bill for exercise.
Additional consideration: Optionees who take advantage of an extended exercise period (exercise their options after 90 days from last employment) lose their Incentive Stock Option (ISO) tax treatment. Shares exercised after 90 days from last employment will be treated as Non-Qualified Stock Options (NQSOs) and generally come with a higher tax rate. However, with this extended exercise design, optionees can choose to exercise within 90 days and keep their ISO classification, or wait to exercise and accept the NQSO classification. This flexibility is key in rewarding optionees of all types and financial circumstance.
4. Later Stage - Restricted Stock Units
Employees may prefer RSUs to stock options at later stage companies for both tax deferral and offer value purposes. Well-designed RSUs defer taxes until liquidity so long as it is within a certain time frame (such as 7 years from the date of grant). RSUs are less advantageous for tax rates, though, as the value of the shares is taxed as ordinary income at settlement. RSUs are advantageous from an investment perspective because there is no investment risk as there would be in a stock option exercise prior to liquidity. RSUs also give the employee the full value of the shares at liquidity as there is no purchase price to pay for the stock as there would be with a stock option exercise price. For this reason, a grant of RSUs generally consists of fewer shares than a grant of stock options at a company of the same stage.
This is Part 3 of a 3-part series on the startup scene’s debate about early expiration stock options. See Early Expiration of Startup Stock Options - Part 1 - The $1 Million Problem for more information on the issue and Early Expiration of Startup Stock Options - Part 2 - The Full 10-Year Term Solution for more information on the full 10-year term solution.
This post focuses on structures used for employee equity for clients of Stock Option Counsel - Legal Services for Individuals. For more counsel on these design matters or on executive and key hire equity design, please contact me.
This post focuses on VC-backed Silicon Valley startup equity design structures. Not all startup equity is created equal. For more on the key differences, see The Gold Standard of Startup Equity - A Guide for Employees.
Thank you to attorney Augie Rakow, a partner at Orrick who advises startups and investors, for sharing his creative solution to this problem in Early Expiration of Startup Stock Options - Part 2 - The Full 10-Year Term Solution.
Thank you to JD McCullough for edits to this post. JD is a health tech entrepreneur, interested in connecting and improving businesses, products, and people.